You know that transistors are made of layers of material, right? These layers are laid down in patterns essentially evaporating the materials and allowing them to condense onto the chip.

One of those layers is now one atom thick. Can you imagine working at that level, controlling layers that precisely?

Down to one atom, can’t get any thinner than that!

You can get the technical details here, but if you are not a chip designer you may not follow.

These Transistor Gates Are Just One Carbon Atom Thick, Researchers may have hit a hard limit

As of 2022 the most transistors on a single chip is 114 billion.