They call this “4D” programming. Not only can you build something in 3 dimensions, but you can program it to change over time.

“By 3D printing with materials that react to things like high temperatures or electric currents, researchers have been able to create objects whose form or function can morph and adapt.”

“The approach is known as 4D printing, with time being the extra dimension, and has been used to create everything from robotic grippers to adaptable scaffolds for growing biological tissue. Now researchers have unveiled a new technique that makes it possible to print intricate microscale structures that can later be expanded to up to eight times their size or made harder or softer at will.”

This is excellent.

Micro 4D Printing Builds on Programmable Matter – These dynamic microstructures, courtesy of some clever chemistry, can be adapted on demand